Monday, January 12, 2015

Women in the Time of the Tudors: A Renaissance Refresher

Women in the Time of the Tudors

This essay complements the first MRL Adult Lecture of 2015. On January 26, Sarah Kennedy, who visited last year to discuss Altarpiece, the first novel in her The Cross and The Crown series, returns to discuss City of Ladies, the recently published second book.  The series details the life of women in Tudor England.  To prepare for this discussion, the following is intended to refresh our knowledge of sixteenth century British history.  

            By the early 1500s, a convergence of intellectual developments on the continent of Europe brought a rebirth of ancient learning and new humanist thinking to Tudor England.   In southern Europe the Renaissance renewed interest in Greek and Roman culture and learning; in northern Europe new religious thought emphasized individual will and human involvement in events.
Translations in English of the New Testament made the “word of God” accessible to lay people without reliance on interpretation by the Church.  Economic and social conditions unique to England also added to an unsettling of order.  An expanded English urban middle-class centered around the cloth trade.  King Henry VIII depleted the national treasury with costly foreign alliances and military misadventures.  Excesses in personal conduct, displays of wealth, ecclesiastical privilege, and ostentatious pomp at all levels of the Church fueled resentment against that institution by the general population.  This popular disaffection, personified in the chief royal councilor Cardinal Wolsey, provided cover for the King to eliminate him, to act against the clergy, and to convert the wealth of the Church to himself.  Precipitously, the desire of the King to have his marriage to Katherine of Aragon annulled by the Pope in order to marry Anne Boleyn created tension between the King and the Church.   While all these factors played a role, the King’s personal life propelled the passage of the 1536 Act for the Dissolution of the Monasteries causing religious chaos that lasted for years.  Though two women were at the center of the turmoil, the consensus among many historians is that women did not benefit from it.  The belief in the inferior position of women remained unchanged from previous centuries; however, from this lesser standing, women found ways of being influential and active in the secular society.   Unfortunately their sisters in the convent found their societal relevance denied. 

            Between 1536 and 1540 the monastic religious orders in England were dissolved.  Though the exact number is unknown, about 140 nunneries were closed, affecting about 1,600 nuns.   Most of the dissolved nunneries were very small; in addition to their religious role, they were an important local institution.  Their abbeys and nunneries served as a refuge for traveling gentry who wished to avoid the bread and board at the local taverns.  The sisters educated local daughters in reading and numbers and the gentry’s daughters, in addition, were taught needlework and drawing skills.  The nuns served as the pharmacists and doctors in the neighborhood. 
            The historical record is absent on what happened to these often penniless “former” sisters.  Some made their way to religious orders on the Continent.  Those who stayed faced the same environment as other women in society of the 1600s, plus being additionally burdened by being an  age unsuitable for marriage and by their own vows of chastity.  Returning to their families was not always a viable choice.  Many of the nuns arrived at the monastery as the "spare" daughters to be “dedicated to God” or as orphans abandoned on the door step.   These women came into a secular society that espoused the Biblical interpretation that women were to serve and obey a man, which not even the Reformation theology challenged.  The sole function of the woman was to marry, produce sons, and look after her home and family.   Women from wealthy families were more constrained in their opportunities than their less well-off sisters.  Usually the women of the upper ranks of society had no control over a choice of a husband.  Their health was put at risk because they did not nurse their children, resulting in frequent pregnancies and therefore at greater risk of dying in childbirth.  In contrast, common country and city women, though still enjoined by their Biblical role, found economic necessity brought broader opportunities. 
            Mostly though, female employment was menial and low pay.  Common sources of employment were domestic service and midwifery.   Women were not allowed in the professions – even when, for example in medicine, some had better knowledge and skills than their male counterparts.  In the sixteenth century, change for women was a result of the growing middle and merchant class.   Some women could join organizations of trade people and skilled workers.  A woman arrived at an entrepreneurial position by assisting in her husband’s or father’s workplace, which trade she took over after the male’s death.  Hence, in the cloth trade - spinners, dyer, tailors, and shoemakers – were found business women.  In non-guild enterprises, women worked as food preparers, brew masters, and bakers, often working at an inn or pedaling on the streets and at fairs.  If her sole role was housewife to a farmer or merchant, as a helpmate in the home and in family management demanded full-time commitment.
            Some women in this period did think and act independently.   Often they were women of faith who espoused views contrary to those of the reigning monarch.  Being independent minded could be dangerous and deadly.  Catholic Queen Mary made a martyr of Protestant Anne Ashew, who rebelled against her Catholic husband and preached reformation theology in London.   Anglican Queen Elizabeth hung Anne Line for harboring a Roman Catholic Priest.
 There were advocates for greater recognition of women’s role in society.  An example was the book City of Ladies by Christine de Pizan, written in vernacular French (a language moderately educated people in England understood).  She argued that women were valuable participants in society and all women should be educated.  City of Ladies was completed in 1405.  In the book, the author entered an allegorical city of ladies of noble spirit in which famous women through history lived and who were models for meaningful roles of women.  In Part I of de Pizan’s City of Ladies, the external walls of the city were built by Lady Reason to teach the author that that she was not useless or evil and had a significant place in society.  The Queen of Sheba, the Amazons, Lavinia, and others served as models of reason.  In Part II, Lady Rectitude built houses filled with ladies - Deborah, Cassandra, the Lacedaemonian women, etc. - renowned for their gifts of prophecy, chastity, and devotion to others.  Their examples refuted the bad things women were believed to bring to a marriage.  Lady Justice, in Part III, provided examples of ladies who maintained their chastity and good name.  The completed city would be protected if women followed the Virgin Mary and the other martyred women saints.   In her book, Christine de Pizan relied on the works of Giovanni Boccaccio’s De mulieribus claris (On Famous Women) and Decameron, written about half a century before her own treatise.

As we follow Sarah Kennedy’s Catherine Havens Overton, a former nun, in City of Ladies, the reader might find the lifestyle and events historically interesting but the attitudes surprisingly familiar and, perhaps, enduring.   MRL hopes you will join in the discussion at the Main Library on January 26 at 1:00 pm.
By Diane Rafuse; Jan. 2015

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